Type Set of cruises
Chief scientist(s) COPPOLA Laurent ORCID, DIAMOND-RIQUIER Emilie
Project manager COPPOLA Laurent ORCID
DOI 10.18142/131

The DYFAMED series started in 1991 under JGOFS program. It has been integrated into the SNO MOOSE since 2010 (SNO having integrated the IR ILICO in 2016). This series is largely based on the monthly cruises performed by the CNRS-INSU vessel TETHYS II. These observations are complemented by "high-frequency" measurements of the submerged mooring integrated into the ERIC EMSO, surface measurements acquired by the ODAS Cote d'Azur buoy (Meteo France) and bio-optical measurements of the BOUSSOLE buoy. In SNO MOOSE, fixed-point observations of the DYFAMED site are improved by glider measurements along the NICE-CALVI endurance line (MOOSE T00), which provides a better understanding of the mesoscale variability of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the Ligurian Sea.

The objective of this unique time series in the Mediterranean (in the open sea) is to observe over the long term the impact of climate and anthropogenic forcing on: 1) the evolution of water masses in relation to deep water formation and watervmass propagation from the eastern basin, 2) biological production and export of associated material (nutrients, major elements C, N, Si), 3) acidification and sequestration of anthropogenic carbon, 4) biodiversity and 5) variability of atmospheric inputs to the CO2 biological pump. In this context, the long-term observation strategy makes it possible to detect seasonal and interannual anomalies as well as decennial variations affecting this open sea area.  

Monthly observations in the water column at the DYFAMED site include a CTDO2 profile (surface-bottom), seawater samples and zooplankton collections. Seawater samples are used to measure essential biogeochemical variables (EOV) using standard and best practices (identical to those of SOMLIT, GO-SHIP): nutrients and oxygen (Villefranche), pigments (SAPIGH service), DIC-AT (SNAPCO), zooplankton identification (Villefranche).


Scientific context

Main results

Data acquired and analyses carried out at sea and on shore

Published data

Metzl Nicolas, Fin Jonathan, Lo Monaco Claire, Mignon Claude, Alliouane Samir, Antoine David, Bourdin Guillaume, Boutin Jacqueline, Bozec Yann, Conan Pascal, Coppola Laurent, Douville Eric, Durrieu De Madron Xavier, Gattuso Jean-Pierre, Gazeau Frédéric, Golbol  Melek, Lansard Bruno, Lefèvre Dominique, Lefèvre Nathalie, Lombard Fabien, Louanchi Férial, Merlivat Liliane, Olivier Léa, Petrenko Anne, Petton Sébastien, Pujo-Pay Mireille, Rabouille Christophe, Reverdin Gilles, Ridame Céline, Tribollet Aline, Vellucci Vincenzo, Wagener Thibaut, Wimart-Rousseau Cathy (2023). A synthesis of ocean total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon measurements from 1993 to 2022: the SNAPO-CO2-v1 dataset.

Coppola Laurent, Diamond Riquier Emilie, Carval Thierry, Irisson Jean-Olivier, Desnos Corinne (2023). Dyfamed observatory data.



Álvarez Eva, Cossarini Gianpiero, Teruzzi Anna, Bruggeman Jorn, Bolding Karsten, Ciavatta Stefano, Vellucci Vincenzo, D’ortenzio Fabrizio, Antoine David, Lazzari Paolo (2023). Chromophoric dissolved organic matter dynamics revealed through the optimization of an optical-biogeochemical model in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Biogeosciences, 20(22), 4591-4624. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Bosse Anthony, Testor Pierre, Damien Pierre, Estournel Claude, Marsaleix Patrick, Mortier Laurent, Prieur Louis, Taillandier Vincent (2021). Wind-Forced Submesoscale Symmetric Instability around Deep Convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Fluids, 6(3), 123 (26p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Caniaux G., Prieur L., Giordani H., Redelsperger Jean-Luc (2017). An inverse method to derive surface fluxes from the closure of oceanic heat and water budgets: Application to the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Journal Of Geophysical Research-oceans, 122(4), 2884-2908.

Pasqueron De Fommervault Orens, Migon Christophe, D'Ortenzio Fabrizio, Ribera D'Alcala Maurizio, Coppola Laurent (2015). Temporal variability of nutrient concentrations in the northwestern Mediterranean sea (DYFAMED time-series station). Deep-sea Research Part I-oceanographic Research Papers, 100, 1-12.

Pasqueron De Fommervault Orens, Migon Christophe, Dufour Aurelie, D'Ortenzio Fabrizio, Kessouri Faycal, Raimbault Patrick, Garcia Nicole, Lagadec Veronique (2015). Atmospheric input of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus to the Ligurian Sea: Data from the Cap Ferrat coastal time-series station. Deep-sea Research Part I-oceanographic Research Papers, 106, 116-125.

Heimburger Lars-Eric, Lavigne Heloise, Migon Christophe, D'Ortenzio Fabrizio, Estournel Claude, Coppola Laurent, Miquel Juan-Carlos (2013). Temporal variability of vertical export flux at the DYFAMED time-series station (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea). Progress In Oceanography, 119, 59-67.

Jones V., Meador T. B., Gogou A., Migon C., Penkman K. E. H., Collins M. J., Repeta D. J. (2013). Characterisation and dynamics of dissolved organic matter in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Progress In Oceanography, 119, 78-89.

Schroeder K., Millot C., Bengara L., Ben Ismail Sana, Bensi Manuel, Borghini M., Budillon G., Cardin Vanessa, Coppola Laurent, Curtil Colin, Drago Aldo, El Moumni B., Font J., Fuda Jean-Luc, Garcia-Lafuente J., Gasparini G. P., Kontoyiannis H., Lefevre D., Puig P., Raimbault Patrick, Rougier Gilles, Salat J., Sammari Cherif, Sanchez Garrido J. C., Sanchez-Roman A., Sparnocchia Stefania, Tamburini C., Taupier-Letage IsabelleORCID, Theocharis A., Vargas-Yanez M., Vetrano Anna (2013). Long-term monitoring programme of the hydrological variability in the Mediterranean Sea: a first overview of the HYDROCHANGES network. Ocean Science, 9(2), 301-324. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Zunino P., Schroeder K., Vargas-Yanez M., Gasparini G. P., Coppola L., Garcia-Martinez M. C., Moya-Ruiz F. (2012). Effects of the Western Mediterranean Transition on the resident water masses: Pure warming, pure freshening and pure heaving. Journal Of Marine Systems, 96-97, 15-23.

Heimbuerger Lars-Eric, Cossa Daniel, Thibodeau Benoit, Khripounoff AlexisORCID, Mas Virginie, Chiffoleau Jean-Francois, Schmidt Sabine, Migon Christophe (2012). Natural and anthropogenic trace metals in sediments of the Ligurian Sea (Northwestern Mediterranean). Chemical Geology, 291, 141-151. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Miquel Juan-Carlos, Martin Jacobo, Gasser Beat, Rodriguez-Y-Baena Alessia, Toubal Tarik, Fowler Scott W. (2011). Dynamics of particle flux and carbon export in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea: A two decade time-series study at the DYFAMED site. Progress In Oceanography, 91(4), 461-481.

Rontani J-F, Wakeham S. G., Prahl F. G., Vaultier F., Volkman J. K. (2011). Analysis of trace amounts of alkenones in complex environmental samples by way of NaBH4/NaBD4 reduction and silylation. Organic Geochemistry, 42(11), 1299-1307.

Heimbuerger Lars-Eric, Migon Christophe, Cossa Daniel (2011). Impact of atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic and natural trace metals on Northwestern Mediterranean surface waters: A box model assessment. Environmental Pollution, 159(6), 1629-1634. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Qiu Z. F., Doglioli A. M., Hu Z. Y., Marsaleix P., Carlotti F. (2010). The influence of hydrodynamic processes on zooplankton transport and distributions in the North Western Mediterranean Estimates from a Lagrangian model. Ecological Modelling, 221(23), 2816-2827.

Eisenhauer L., Carlotti F., Baklouti M., Diaz F. (2009). Zooplankton population model coupled to a biogeochemical model of the North Western Mediterranean Sea ecosystem. Ecological Modelling, 220(21), 2865-2876.

Touratier Franck, Goyet Catherine (2009). Decadal evolution of anthropogenic CO2 in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s. Deep-sea Research Part I-oceanographic Research Papers, 56(10), 1708-1716.

Roy-Barman M., Lemaitre C., Ayrault S., Jeandel C., Souhaut M., Miquel J. -C. (2009). The influence of particle composition on Thorium scavenging in the Mediterranean Sea. Earth And Planetary Science Letters, 286(3-4), 526-534.

Xue Jianhong, Armstrong Robert A. (2009). An improved "benchmark" method for estimating particle settling velocities from time-series sediment trap fluxes. Deep-sea Research Part Ii-topical Studies In Oceanography, 56(18), 1479-1486.

Bourguet Nicolas, Goutx Madeleine, Ghiglione Jean-Francois, Pujo-Pay Mireille, Mevel Genevieve, Momzikoff Andre, Mousseau Laure, Guigue Catherine, Garcia Nicole, Raimbault Patrick, Pete Romain, Oriol Louise, Lefevre Dominique (2009). Lipid biomarkers and bacterial lipase activities as indicators of organic matter and bacterial dynamics in contrasted regimes at the DYFAMED site, NW Mediterranean. Deep-sea Research Part Ii-topical Studies In Oceanography, 56(18), 1454-1469.

Lee Cindy, Armstrong Robert A., Cochran J. Kirk, Engel Anja, Fowler Scott W., Goutx Madeleine, Masque Pere, Miquel Juan Carlos, Peterson Michael, Tamburini Christian, Wakeham Stuart (2009). MedFlux: Investigations of particle flux in the Twilight Zone. Deep-sea Research Part Ii-topical Studies In Oceanography, 56(18), 1363-1368.

Van Beek P., Sternberg E., Reyss J. -L., Souhaut M., Robin E., Jeandel C. (2009). Ra-228/Ra-226 and Ra-226/Ba ratios in the Western Mediterranean Sea: Barite formation and transport in the water column. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 73(16), 4720-4737.

Cochran J. Kirk, Miquel Juan Carlos, Armstrong Robert, Fowler Scott W., Masque Pere, Gasser Beat, Hirschberg David, Szlosek Jennifer, Rodriguez Y Baena Alessia M., Verdeny Elisabet, Stewart Gillian M. (2009). Time-series measurements of Th-234 in water column and sediment trap samples from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Deep-sea Research Part Ii-topical Studies In Oceanography, 56(18), 1487-1501.

Christodoulou Stephane, Marty Jean-Claude, Miquel Juan-Carlos, Volkman John K., Rontani Jean-Francois (2009). Use of lipids and their degradation products as biomarkers for carbon cycling in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Marine Chemistry, 113(1-2), 25-40.

Martin J., Sanchez-Cabeza J. A., Eriksson M., Levy I., Miquel J. C. (2009). Recent accumulation of trace metals in sediments at the DYFAMED site (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 59(4-7), 146-153.

Marty Jean-Claude, Garcia Nicole, Rairnbault Patrick (2008). Phytoplankton dynamics and primary production under late summer conditions in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Deep-sea Research Part I-oceanographic Research Papers, 55(9), 1131-1149.

Sternberg E., Jeandel C., Robin E., Souhaut M. (2008). Seasonal cycle of suspended barite in the mediterranean sea. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 72(16), 4020-4034.

References of Technical Reports

Gourtay - Le Hingrat Francoise (2012). Chargement des données CTD et Bouteilles des campagnes DYFAMED et MOOSE dans la base SISMER. IDM/SISMER/12-045.

References of National Seminar Communications

Nitrogen and phosphorus seasonal dynamics and annual budget in the Northwestern Mediterranean deep convection region inferred from a 3D physical/biogeochemical coupled modelby Fayçal Kessouri et al., 2 Advances in Understanding of the Multi-Disciplinary Dynamics of the Southern European Seas (Mediterranean and Black Sea. EGU General Assembly 23 - 28 avril 2017

DEA or MASTER 2 using campaign data

Marine Fourrier, "Application d'un réseau de neurones pour améliorer l'observation des paramètres biogéochimiques en mer Méditerranée", Master 2 mention Sciences de l'Univers, Environnement, Ecologie, 2018, Sorbonne Université.

Thesis using campaign data

Fourrier Marine (2021). Impact des forçages physiques sur la dynamique des éléments biogéochimiques en mer Méditerranée : approche couplée observations in situ et réseaux de neurones / Impact of physical forcings on the dynamics of biogeochemical elements in the Mediterranean Sea : combined use of in situ observations and neural networks. PhD Thesis, Unversité Sorbonne.

Marine Fourrier (thèse en cours - 2021), "Impact des forçages physiques sur la dynamique des éléments biogéochimiques en Méditerranée : utilisation combinée des observations in situ et d'un réseau de neurones", encadrants : Laurent Coppola, Sorbonne Université.

Margirier F. (2018) Etude de la variabilité physique te biogéochimique des masses d'eaux en mer Mediterranée. LOCEAN - Sorbonne Université, Direction : L. Mortier et P. Testor

Waldman, R., (2016) Etude multi-échelle de la convection océanique profonde en mer Méditerranée : de l'observation à la modélisation climatique. PhD thesis, Université de Toulouse, Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III. S. Somot

Bosse A. (2015) Etude du couplage physique-biogéochimie à (sub)mésoéchelle par l'analyse d'observations « gliders » en Méditerranée. Encadrants : L. Mortier et P. Testor. Université Pierre-et- Marie Curie

Damien P. (2015).: Etude du rôle des petites échelles sur la circulation océanique en Méditerranée occidentale à l'aide d'un modèle numérique à haute résolution. Encadrants: C. Estournel et P. Marsaleix . Université de Toulouse II.

Kessouri F. (2015): Etude des processus biogéochimiques couplés à la physique en Méditerranée nordoccidentale à l'aide de la modélisation numérique. Encadrantes : C. Ulses et C. Estournel. LA - Université de Toulouse III

Pasqueron de Fommervault O. (2015) Impact des changements climatiques et environnementaux sur la dynamique des nutriments en Méditerranée nord-occidentale. Encadrants : C. Migon et F. D'Ortenzio. LOV - Pierre-et-Marie Curie.

Houpert L. (2013). Circulation et variabilité des masses d'eau en Méditerranée nord-occidentale. PhD, 2010-2013 Université de Perpignan. Encadrants: Xavier Durrieu de Madron et Pierre Testor. Université de Perpignan

Lavigne H. (2013). Interactions entre la couche de mélange océanique, la disponibilité en sels nutritifs et le phytoplancton : étude basée sur les nouvelles plates-formes de mesure et sur les données satellitaires. Université Pierre et Marie Curie. Encadrants: C. Migon et F. D'Ortenzio.

Heimburger (2010). Dynamics of chemical contaminants in the open ocean : the Mediterranean sea as an example, Univ. Nice

Marine Fourrier (thèse en cours), "Impact des forçages physiques sur la dynamique des éléments biogéochimiques en Méditerranée : utilisation combinée des observations in situ et d'un réseau de neurones", encadrants : Laurent Coppola, Sorbonne Université.