Type Oceanographic cruise
Ship Pourquoi pas ?
Ship owner Ifremer
Dates 28/01/2018 - 11/03/2018
Chief scientist(s) CAMBON-BONAVITA Marie-Anne ORCID


IFREMER Centre de Bretagne

ZI Pointe du diable

CS 10070


+33 (0)2

DOI 10.17600/18000004

The deep-sea (>1000 m depth) comprises 79% of the marine biosphere volume. This environment remains barely accessible, and one of the least known on the planet. However, it might soon be impacted due to mineral, energetic and biological resources prospection leaded by industrial countries. In the near future, hydrothermal vents and their surrounding areas might become a major target of this exploitation, even though their biodiversity, their role in biogeochemical cycles, and their functioning are still poorly constrained.

The aim of the BICOSE 2 cruise will be to pursue the studies initiated during the BICOSE 2014 cruise, especially by first recovering the colonization experiments, and is now to be part of an ongoing long-term multiannual program dedicated to this area. This cruise will then complete partial data obtained in 2014 and will answer to newly emerged questions: Is there seasonality in Rimicaris exoculata reproduction and life form (larvae, males) in situ distribution?  Where are the living areas of this species and congeners? Is there a temporal microbial colonization of hydrothermal chimneys and maturation of sulfurs of different ages? What are the microbial activities occurring in situ?  How do populations succeed one another in time and space? How do they newly colonize sites? What are their sensorial capabilities to disperse and colonize new sites? What are the physicochemical limits of symbioses functioning? How do species adapt?

We propose to conduct a series of integrated multidisciplinary studies at the mid-Atlantic ridge active hydrothermal vents TAG and Snake Pit, including a focus on inactive areas as well as surrounding areas out of direct hydrothermal influence identified after BICOSE2014 and HERMINE 2017 cartography analyses. These two sites have a unique location on the MAR. They are separated by the Kane fault, which makes them good candidates to study dispersion barriers in the deep sea. This holistic approach will bring new data and answers regarding multiple questions on geology, geochemistry, biology and microbiology. Both a global approach and a focused one using target models (Rimicaris exoculata and caridae species, and Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis) will be conducted. We will focus on 6 points: 1) Fine geochemical characterization of two deep-sea hydrothermal sites and surrounding areas as well as inactive sites habitats, some of them being identified during the BICOSE 2014 and HERMINE cruises but never sampled; 2) Inventory of the biodiversity in these habitats (biology and microbiology), continuing our contribution to the collection enrichment started at the BICOSE 2014 cruise, and assemblages description with regard to geochemical constraints, their succession in time and space; 3) Complete the life cycle study of Rimicaris sp., in situ larvae and sex repartition survey, in vivo experimentations to test seasonality hypothesis to better appreciate adaptation/dispersion capabilities, and infer connectivity; 4) Constrain symbioses functioning limits and transmission, and species adaptation capabilities; 5) in situ microbial activities thanks to new approaches; 6) Pursue the exploration part around TAG active mound to complete the HERMINE cruise.

To better protect these vulnerable ecosystems, we have to deeply increase the study of their diversity, functioning, evolution and origin. Only then, we will be able to evaluate their resilience to anthropic disturbances in the framework of increasing interest of the industry for the deep-sea minerals.


Published data

Methou Pierre, Chong Chen, Watanabe Hiromi K, Cambon Bonavita Marie-Anne, Pradillon Florence (2022). Reproductive data of hydrothermal vent alvinocaridid shrimps collected in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

Michel Loïc N., Bell James B., Dubois Stanislas F., Le Pans Mathilde, Lepoint Gilles, Olu Karine, Reid William D. K., Sarrazin Jozee, Schaal Gauthier, Hayden Brian (2021). DeepIso - a global open database of stable isotope ratios and elemental contents for deep-sea ecosystems.

Data managed by SISMER

Sampling operations





Shillito B., Amand L., Hamel G. (2023). Update of the PERISCOP system for isobaric sampling of deep-sea fauna. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 193, 103956 (12p.).

Aubé JohanneORCID, Cambon-Bonavita Marie-AnneORCID, Velo-Suárez Lourdes, Cueff-Gauchard ValerieORCID, Lesongeur Francoise, Guéganton Marion, Durand Lucile, Reveillaud Julie (2022). A novel and dual digestive symbiosis scales up the nutrition and immune system of the holobiont Rimicaris exoculata. Microbiome, 10(1), 189 (17p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Methou Pierre, Chen Chong, Kayama Watanabe Hiromi, Cambon Marie-AnneORCID, Pradillon FlorenceORCID (2022). Reproduction in deep‐sea vent shrimps is influenced by diet, with rhythms apparently unlinked to surface production. Ecology And Evolution, 12(7), e9076 (12p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Guéganton Marion, Rouxel Ouafae, Durand Lucile, Cueff-Gauchard ValerieORCID, Gayet Nicolas, Pradillon FlorenceORCID, Cambon-Bonavita Marie-AnneORCID (2022). Anatomy and Symbiosis of the Digestive System of the Vent Shrimp Rimicaris Exoculata and Rimicaris Chacei Revealed Through Imaging Approaches. Frontiers In Marine Science, 9, 903748 (14p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Methou Pierre, Hernández-Ávila I, Cathalot CecileORCID, Cambon-Bonavita Marie-AnneORCID, Pradillon FlorenceORCID (2022). Population structure and environmental niches of Rimicaris shrimps from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 684, 1-20. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Le Guellec Sebastien, Leroy Elodie, Courtine Damien, Godfroy AnneORCID, Roussel ErwanORCID (2021). H2-dependent formate production by hyperthermophilic Thermococcales: an alternative to sulfur reduction for reducing-equivalents disposal. Isme Journal, 15(12), 3423-3436. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Ravaux Juliette, Machon Julia, Shillito Bruce, Barthélémy Dominique, Amand Louis, Cabral Mélanie, Delcour Elise, Zbinden Magali (2021). Do Hydrothermal Shrimp Smell Vents? Insects, 12(11), 1043 (29p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Cathalot CecileORCID, Roussel ErwanORCID, Perhirin Antoine, Redou Creff Vanessa, Donval Jean-Pierre, Guyader VivienORCID, Roullet Guillaume, Gula Jonathan, Tamburini Christian, Garel Marc, Godfroy AnneORCID, Sarradin Pierre-MarieORCID, Redou (2021). Hydrothermal plumes as hotspots for deep-ocean heterotrophic microbial biomass production. Nature Communications, 12(1), 6861 (10p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Gollner S., Colaço Ana, Gebruk A., Halpin P.N., Higgs N., Menini E., Mestre N.C., Qian P.-Y., Sarrazin JozeeORCID, Szafranski K., Van Dover C.L. (2021). Application of scientific criteria for identifying hydrothermal ecosystems in need of protection. Marine Policy, 132, 104641 (12p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Slobodkina Galina, Allioux Maxime, Merkel Alexander, Cambon Bonavita Marie-AnneORCID, Alain Karine, Jebbar Mohamed, Slobodkin Alexander (2021). Physiological and Genomic Characterization of a Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Archaeoglobus neptunius sp. nov. Isolated From a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Warrants the Reclassification of the Genus Archaeoglobus. Frontiers In Microbiology, 12, 679245 (15p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Zbinden M, Cambon-Bonavita Marie-AnneORCID (2020). Rimicaris exoculata: biology and ecology of a shrimp from deep-sea hydrothermal vents associated with ectosymbiotic bacteria. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 652, 187-222. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Le Bloa Simon, Boidin-Wichlacz Céline, Cueff-Gauchard ValerieORCID, Rosa Rafael Diego, Cuvillier-Hot Virginie, Durand Lucile, Methou Pierre, Pradillon FlorenceORCID, Cambon-Bonavita Marie-AnneORCID, Tasiemski Aurélie (2020). Antimicrobial Peptides and Ectosymbiotic Relationships: Involvement of a Novel Type IIa Crustin in the Life Cycle of a Deep-Sea Vent Shrimp. Frontiers In Immunology, 11, 1511 (18p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Methou Pierre, Michel LoicORCID, Segonzac Michel, Cambon-Bonavita Marie-AnneORCID, Pradillon FlorenceORCID (2020). Integrative taxonomy revisits the ontogeny and trophic niches of Rimicaris vent shrimps. Royal Society Open Science, 7(7), 200837 (13p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Machon Julia, Krieger Jakob, Zbinden Magali, Ravaux Juliette, Harzsch Steffen (2020). Exploring brain diversity in crustaceans: sensory systems of deep vent shrimps. Neuroforum, 26(2), 73-84. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Spedicato Adriana, Sánchez Nuria, Pastor Lucie, Menot LenaickORCID, Zeppilli DanielaORCID (2020). Meiofauna Community in Soft Sediments at TAG and Snake Pit Hydrothermal Vent Fields. Frontiers In Marine Science, 7(200), 10p. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Beltz Barbara S (2019). Adaptations to extreme conditions. Elife, 8, e50647 (3p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Machon Julia, Krieger Jakob, Meth Rebecca, Zbinden Magali, Ravaux Juliette, Montagné Nicolas, Chertemps Thomas, Harzsch Steffen (2019). Neuroanatomy of a hydrothermal vent shrimp provides insights into the evolution of crustacean integrative brain centers. Elife, 8, e47550 (37p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Methou Pierre, Hernández-Ávila Ivan, Aube JohanneORCID, Cueff-Gauchard ValerieORCID, Gayet Nicolas, Amand Louis, Shillito Bruce, Pradillon FlorenceORCID, Cambon-Bonavita Marie-AnneORCID (2019). Is It First the Egg or the Shrimp? – Diversity and Variation in Microbial Communities Colonizing Broods of the Vent Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata During Embryonic Development. Frontiers In Microbiology, 10(808), 19p. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :