Type Oceanographic cruise
Ship L'Atalante
Ship owner Ifremer
Dates 01/03/2011 - 23/03/2011
Chief scientist(s) DURRIEU de MADRON Xavier



CNRS - UMR 5110 - Universite de Perpignan

52 avenue Paul Alduy


+33 (0)4

DOI 10.17600/11010020

The deep basin and continental shelf of the Gulf of Lion (North Western Mediterranean) are known for the formation of dense water in wintertime by the action of N-NW continental winds. This dense water is formed both offshore and at the coast. The area of Cap de Creus and its adjacent canyon is the main zone where dense coastal water is exported. Dense water dynamics on the continental shelf are also influenced by E-SE storms. Transfers of organic, inorganic, particulate and dissolved matter from the surface to the deep basin and from the shelf towards the slope by these physical processes can influence the redistribution of chemical elements in sediments, as well as the structure and functioning of benthic and pelagic ecosystems. The CASCADE cruise aimed to determine the characteristics of these two physical mechanisms and their numerous impacts, as well as monitoring changes in the hydrology, dynamics, sedimentology and biogeochemistry of water bodies. We propose a qualitative and quantitative estimate of particulate and dissolved, organic and inorganic matter fluxes exported towards the slope and the deep basin by these mechanisms.

Data managed by SISMER



Cossa Daniel, De Madron Xavier Durrieu, Schafer Jorg, Guedron Stephane, Marusczak Nicolas, Castelle Sabine, Naudin Jean-Jacques (2018). Sources and exchanges of mercury in the waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean margin. Progress In Oceanography, 163, 172-183. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Cossa Daniel, De Madron Xavier Durrieu, Schafer Jorg, Lanceleur Laurent, Guedron Stephane, Buscail Roselyne, Thomas Bastien, Castelle Sabine, Naudin Jean-Jacques (2017). The open sea as the main source of methylmercury in the water column of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean margin). Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 199, 222-237. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Houpert L., Durrieu De Madron X. Durrieu, Testor P., Bosse A., D'Ortenzio F., Bouin M. N., Dausse D., Le Goff H., Kunesch S., Labaste M., Coppola L., Mortier L., Raimbault P. (2016). Observations of open-ocean deep convection in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea: Seasonal and interannual variability of mixing and deep water masses for the 2007–2013 period. Journal Of Geophysical Research-oceans, 121(11), 8139-8171.

Bosse Anthony, Testor Pierre, Houpert Loic, Damien Pierre, Prieur Louis, Hayes Daniel, Taillandier Vincent, Durrieu De Madron Xavier, D'Ortenzio Fabrizio, Coppola Laurent, Karstensen Johannes, Mortier Laurent (2016). Scales and dynamics of Submesoscale Coherent Vortices formed by deep convection in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Journal Of Geophysical Research-oceans, 121(10), 7716-7742.

Ulses C., Auger P. -A., Soetaert K., Marsaleix P., Diaz F., Coppola L., Herrmann M. J., Kessouri F., Estournel C. (2016). Budget of organic carbon in the North-Western Mediterranean Open Sea over the period 2004-2008 using 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical modeling. Journal Of Geophysical Research-oceans, 121(9), 7026-7055.

Bourrin Francois, Many Gael, Durrieu De Madron Xavier, Martin Jacobo, Puig Pere, Houpert Loic, Testor Pierre, Kunesch Stephane, Mahiouz Karim, Beguery Laurent (2015). Glider monitoring of shelf suspended particle dynamics and transport during storm and flooding conditions. Continental Shelf Research, 109, 135-149.

Severin T., Conan P., Durrieu De Madron X., Houpert L., Oliver M. J., Oriol L., Caparros J., Ghiglione J. F., Pujo-Pay M. (2014). Impact of open-ocean convection on nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and activity. Deep-sea Research Part I-oceanographic Research Papers, 94, 62-71.

Dumas C., Aubert D., Durrieu De Madron X., Ludwig W., Heussner S., Delsaut N., Menniti C., Sotin C., Buscail R. (2014). Storm-induced transfer of particulate trace metals to the deep-sea in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea). Environmental Geochemistry And Health, 36(5), 995-1014.

Puig Pere, Durrieu De Madron Xavier, Salat Jordi, Schroeder Katrin, Martin Jacobo, Karageorgis Aristomenis, Palanques Albert, Roullier Francois, Luis Lopez-Jurado Jose, Emelianov Mikhail, Moutin Thierry, Houpert Loic (2013). Thick bottom nepheloid layers in the western Mediterranean generated by deep dense shelf water cascading. Progress In Oceanography, 111, 1-23.

Durrieu De Madron Xavier, Houpert L., Puig P., Sanchez-Vidal A., Testor Pierre, Bosse A., Estournel Claude, Somot S., Bourrin F., Bouin M. N., Beauverger M., Beguery L., Calafat A., Canals M., Cassou Christophe, Coppola Laurent, Dausse D., D'Ortenzio Fabrizio, Font J., Heussner S., Kunesch S., Lefevre D., Le Goff H., Martin J., Mortier L., Palanques A., Raimbault Patrick (2013). Interaction of dense shelf water cascading and open-sea convection in the northwestern Mediterranean during winter 2012. Geophysical Research Letters, 40(7), 1379-1385.

Stabholz M., Durrieu De Madron X., Canals M., Khripounoff Alexis, Taupier-Letage Isabelle, Testor Pierre, Heussner S., Kerherve P., Delsaut N., Houpert Loic, Lastras G., Dennielou Bernard (2013). Impact of open-ocean convection on particle fluxes and sediment dynamics in the deep margin of the Gulf of Lions. Biogeosciences, 10(2), 1097-1116. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

Martin J., Durrieu De Madron X., Puig P., Bourrin F., Palanques A., Houpert Loic, Higueras M., Sanchez-Vidal A., Calafat A. M., Canals M., Heussner S., Delsaut N., Sotin C. (2013). Sediment transport along the Cap de Creus Canyon flank during a mild, wet winter. Biogeosciences, 10(5), 3221-3239. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :

References of Technical Reports

Durrieu de Madron X. (2012) Technical report from the CASCADE Cruise in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean), March 1- March 23, 2011, 34 pp

Mermex group (2016). MERMEX. Marine Ecosystems Response in the Mediterranean Experiment. Synthesis 2010-2015.

Pairaud Ivane, Arsouze Thomas, Ayata Sakina-Dorothee, Baklouti Melika, Banaru Daniela, Diaz Frederic, Dutay Jean-Claude, Estournel Claude, Garnier Valerie, Garreau Pierre, Marsaleix Patrick, Pinazo Christel, Ulses Caroline, Verney Romaric, Thouvenin Benedicte (2013). Rapport sur les activités de modélisation du groupe Mermex-modélisation (septembre 2013). RST.ODE/LER-PAC/13-30.

Cossa Daniel (2012). Le mercure en Méditerranée nord occidentale. Mercure naturel et anthropique dans l'écosystème du Golfe du Lion et de ses marges : niveaux, apports et tendances dans l'atmosphère, les eaux, les sédiments et les organismes vivants. RST/ODE/LER-PAC/12-03.

References of International Seminar Communications

Dumas C., D. Aubert, R; Buscail, C. Sotin, C. Menniti, X. Durrieu de Madron, W. Ludwig (2013) Geochemical characteristics in recent deep sediments from the Gulf of Lion: trace metals, organic matter, redox conditions, and grain size distribution. 40th CIESM Congress, Marseille, 28 October - 1 November 2013.

Higueras M., P. Kerhervé, A. Calafat , A. Sanchez-Vidal, X. Durrieu De Madron, R. Buscail, J. Martin ,N. Delsaut ,C. Menniti, S. Heussner and M. Canals (2013) Transfer of sediments and organic matter by a marine storm in the cap de creus canyon ( gulf of lion, nw mediterranean sea). 40th CIESM Congress, Marseille, 28 October - 1 November 2013

Rabouille C., O. Radakovitch, C. Estournel, X. Durrieu de Madron, C. Guieu, R. Sempéré (2013)The fate of rhone river carbon on the mediterranean continental margin, its export to the open sea and its relation to climatic parameters, IMBIZO III Biogeochemistry-ecosystem interactions on changing continental margins, Goa, 28-31 January 2013

Severin T., P. Conan, X. Durrieu de Madron, J.F. Ghiglione, J. Caparros, L. Oriol and M. Pujo-Pay (2013) Influence of deep water formation on the nutrient stoichiometry of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (MERMEX program). 40th CIESM Congress, Marseille, 28 October - 1 November 2013.

Bourrin, F., X. Durrieu de Madron, K. Mahiouz, L. Beguery, L. Houpert, L. Sediment resuspension observed by an optical slocum glider during a typical mediterranean winter storm, 2012 Ocean Science Meeting, Salt Lake City, 19-24 February 2012

Houpert L., P. Testor, X. Durrieu de Madron (2012) Variability of open-sea deep convection and deep water masses in the northwestern Mediterranean basin over the recent period (2007-2011) from in-situ measurements. 2012 Ocean Science Meeting, Salt Lake City, 19-24 February 2012

Dumas C., M. Higueras, L. Houpert (2011) Intense events: impact on organic matter and associated elements transfer and sequestration. HERMIONE 2st Annual Meeting, 11-15 April 2011, Estepona, Malaga

Durrieu de Madron X. (2011) Preliminary Results of the CASCADE Cruise (Gulf of Lions). CASCADE: CAscading, Storm, Convection, Advection and Downwelling Events HERMIONE 2st Annual Meeting, 11-15 April 2011, Estepona, Malaga

Dumas C., D. Aubert, X. Durrieu de Madron, W. Ludwig, S; Heussner., N. Delsaut, C. Menniti, C. Sotin, R. Buscail (2013) Impact of a storm event on the transfer of particulate trace metals to the deep-sea. SEGH congress, Toulouse, July 2013.

References of National Seminar Communications

Houpert L., X. Durrieu de Madron, P. Testor, S. Heussner, F. Bourrin, N. Delsaut, S. Kunesch, M. Stabholz L.Mortier, D. Smeed, L. Merckelbach, A. Alvarez, J. Tintore, S. Ruiz, P. Lherminier, T. Terre, G. Krahmann, J. Karstensen, F. d?Ortenzio, V. Taillandier, H. Claustre, T. Carval, M. Beauverger, D. Dausse, H. Legoff, L. Beguery, K. Bernardet, L. Petit de la Villeon & U. Send (2012) Dense Water Formations in the Gulf of Lion: Hydrodynamic, Sediment Dynamic and Impact on the Particle Transport. Coastal dynamics modeling 2011, 19-23 Septembre, 2011, Toulon.

DEA or MASTER 2 using campaign data

SEVERIN Tatiana (2011) Impact des plongées d?eau dense sur le fonctionnement des écosystèmes pélagiques : bilan de matière et production primaire. Résultats préliminaires de la campagne CASCADE 1-23 mars 2011. Mémoire de Master « Mention Sciences de l?Univers, Environnement, Écologie »« Spécialité Océanographie et Environnements Marins ». Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI, 35 pp.

Thesis using campaign data

KESSOURI Faycal : Cycles biogéochimiques de la Mer Méditerranée : Processus et bilans. PhD, 2013-2015, Université de Toulouse, 202 p.

DAMIEN Pierre : Étude de la circulation océanique en Méditerranée Occidentale à l?aide d?un modèle numérique à haute résolution: influence de la submésoéchelle. PhD, 2012-2015, Université de Toulouse, 163 p.

DUMAS Chloé : Impact of extreme events on particulate trace metal transfer from the continent to the deep sea. PhD, 2011- 2014 Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 220 p.

HIGUERAS-CAMPOS Marina : Effet des évènements météo-climatiques en zone côtière: Impact sur le transfert de matière organique particulaire dans le Golfe du Lion PhD, 2011-2014. Université de Perpignan / Université de Barcelone.

SEVERIN Tatiana : Régulation des cycles biogéochimiques par les communautés microbiennes pélagiques sous influence de perturbations physiques à méso-échelle. PhD, 2010-2013. Université de Pierre et Marie Curie.

BOUTRIF Medhi : Dégradation de la matière organique dissoute de fort poids moléculaire par les communautés procaryotiques des zones méso- et bathypélagiques, PhD 2009-2012, Université d?Aix-Marseille, soutenue le 20 Juillet 2012.

HOUPERT Loïc. : Contribution to the study of transfer processes from the surface to the deep ocean in the Mediterranean Sea using in situ measurements. PhD 2009-2013. Université de Perpignan Via Domitia. 223 p.

STABHOLZ Marion : Impact of dense water formations on particulate organic matter dynamics: application to the Gulf of Lions margin. PhD 2009-2013. Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - Universitat de Barcelona. 168 p.